Thyroid cancer is the ninth most common cancer in women around the world. Anaplastic thyroid cancer - the least frequent malignant thyroid disease which is diagnosed for <2% of patients. Though uncommon, it is the most lethal form of thyroid cancers. Compared to other histological types of thyroid malignancies, it is more common over the age of 65, women and men ratio being 3:1. Mostly anaplastic thyroid cancer develops from the existing better differentiated malignant cells such as papillary thyroid carcinoma by transformation process but initial development is also possible. Mortality due to anaplastic thyroid cancer reaches 14-50%. Patients die because of trachea, oesophagus, vagus nerve compressioncaused byrapidly growing tumor.
We report the anaplastic thyroid cancer case of a 91 year-old woman diagnosed with nodal hyperthyroid goiter ten years ago, treated with metizole. Nevertheless, trachea, oesophagus compression symptoms and pain occured, there was the risk of tracheal obstruction, skin ulcered as the node increased from 6x6x8 cm to 9.8X6.6X13.2 cm within 7 weeks. That made 65% goiter growth ratio whereas the usual goiter growth ratio is estimated at 10 to 20% per year. Such rapid growth is unusual, often results as a consequence of malignancy, ignorance, fear of a surgery, the elderly.
Cytology test belore the surgery showed paplllary thyroid carcinoma but histological examination of tissues removed revealed anaplastic thyroid cancer.
A rapidly increasing thyroid node should raise a suspicion of anaplastic thyroid cancer.