Aim - to review data on the prevalence, the type of disorder and the risk factors of sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney diseases.
Methods. In the review we summarized results of studies on sleep disorders performed over the year 2005-2017 in children with chronic kidney diseases.
Results. Current data show that sleep disorders occur in 12-86% of children with chronic kidney diseases. Dialysis, increased BMI, adolescence, lower quality of life, use of central nervous system agents are associated with higher chance of sleep disturbance. Prevalence of sleep disorders is not significantly associated with glomerular filtration rate or stage of chronic kidney disease according to current data. Restless leg syndrome is one of the most studied sleep disorders that are associated with chronic kidney diseases. Its prevalence in paediatric population with chronic kidney disease is 10-35%. Sleep-disordered breathing is diagnosed in 6-46% of children with chronic kidney disease. Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are associated with higher prevalence of sleep disorders. On the other hand, risk of sleep disorders may be decreased in transplanted patients.
Conclusions. Sleep disorders is a significant research topic in modern world, as previously reported data are scarce and drawn from small scale studies with varied methodology, non-standardised diagnostic criteria and unvalidated diagnostic methods. Validated sleep questionnaires and objective instrumental methods should be employed, a sufficient patient and control sample should be pooled to elucidate the actual burden of sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney diseases.