Peculiarities of Cortical Bioelectrical Activity During Sleep and Wakefulness in Children with Idiopathic Focal Epilepsy and Mostly Sleep Disturbances
Rasa Kulvietienė, Rūta Praninskienė
Background. Idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) or Roland epilepsy (RE) is one of the most common age related epileptic syndrome. The disease is known as bei nign as the symptoms disappear during maturation. However, this syndrome involves cognitive function, language and behavior disorders, headache, anxiety, aggression. The identification of the causes of disease is of primary importance. Since the symptoms mostly occur at the night, it is thought that sleep disorders may be involved in the epileptic seizure occurrence and provocation. It is assumed that improvement of sleep quality may prevent or minimize epileptic syndrome. However, such studies are carried out in a little.
The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep disorders in children with RE and to analyze the typical focal discharges in electroencephalogram during wakefulness and sleep in these children.
Material and Methods. During the study 14 patients with IFE were involved. Their sleep disorders were evaluated on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children - SDSC . The electroencephalograms were performed during sleep and wakefulness using the 10-20 electrode placements.
EEGs were analyzed by the neurophysiologist according to the RE specific rolandic spikes-negative diphasic slow spike (voltage over 100 ^V) followed by a slow wave.
Results. Our results show that children with idiopathic focal epilepsy mostly have these sleep disorders: bruxism, snoring, talking, sweating, and limb movements during sleep. The EEG analysis shows that one fifth of the investigated EEGs had specific spikes only during sleep. The centrotemporal spikes spread to the frontal areas in more than half cases.
Conclusion. To confirm the diagnosis of idiopathic focal epilepsy we recommend register EEG in sleep pattern due to rolandic spikes activation during sleep.
Keywords: children, epilepsy, electroencephalography, sleep disorders.