Magnesium: from Metabolism to Health Disorders

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Laboratorinė medicina. 2011,
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Magnesium: from Metabolism to Health Disorders

Regina Firantienė, Sofija Sasnauskienė, Regina Emužytė, Valerija Jablonskienė

 

In this review article magnesium me­tabolism, biochemical reactions, physi­ological functions, the distribution of magnesium in tissue in the body in hu­man organism are examined.

Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cati on in the body and the second most abundant intracellular cation. Magnesium is involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions and is es­sential for life. The normal adult hu­man body contains approximately 1000 mmols (24-25 g) of magnesium. About 60-65% of the magnesium is present in bone, 35-40% is the intra - cellular magnesium, of which about 20% is in muscle and about 1-2% in the extracellular fluid. Most clintcal labo­ratories assess only total serum mag­nesium, which consists of three magne­sium fractions: free ionized magnesium (active form) - 55-65%, bound to pro­teins - 27-30% and magnesium complexed to small anion ligands (phosphate and citrate) - 8-15%.

Magnesium plays an essential role in many functions of the body. Magne­sium is essential to form chelates with important intracellular anionic-lig- ands, especially ATP. Magnesium takes part in many important meta­bolic processes in the organism, includ­ing energy metabolism, protein and nu­cleic acid synthesis, cell cycle, the bind­ing of substances to the plasma mem­branes and others. It also modulates ion transport and influences intra­cellular calcium and potassium concen­trations. It is regut ated by many hor­mones and depends on the cell type.

Magnesium is found in grain and vegetables, most concentrated in nuts, cocoa, dark chocolate and others.

Magnesium deficiency - hypo­magnesemia is defined as a level in blood serum less than 0.5 mmol/l and hypermagnesemia - more than

1.1 mmol^l. Hypomagnesemia in organ­ism is more prevalent that hyper­magnesemia. Chronic low magnesium states have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, hipertension, osteoporosis, di­abetes, asthma and many other diseases.

Keywords: magnesium, metabolism, phys i ol ogy, hypomagnesemia, hyper­magnesemia, clinical effects.

 

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